Some NFL Players May Be Misdiagnosed With Brain Disease: Study

News Picture: Some NFL Players May Be Misdiagnosed With Brain Disease: StudyBy Serena Gordon
HealthDay Reporter

MONDAY, April 27, 2020 (HealthDay News) — The mind injury which will happen in soccer gamers has obtained numerous consideration lately. But a brand new research means that former gamers who get a prognosis of continual traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) after they’re nonetheless alive might be getting the mistaken prognosis.

CTE can solely be identified with an post-mortem, the researchers defined. Other circumstances may trigger the signs resulting in a mistaken CTE prognosis.

“There is at the moment no universally agreed upon approach to clinically diagnose a dwelling participant, but our research discovered that many former gamers are reporting that they obtained CTE diagnoses from their medical care suppliers,” stated the research’s lead writer, Rachel Grashow. She’s a analysis scientist on the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, in Boston.

“This is disconcerting, as a result of there are lots of different circumstances which might be quite common to soccer gamers — similar to sleep apnea, hypertension, weight problems, diabetes, use of prescription ache remedy — that may trigger cognitive signs precisely like these attributed to CTE,” Grashow defined.

Her workforce surveyed almost 4,000 former National Football League (NFL) gamers and located almost 3% had obtained a CTE prognosis.

Grashow stated the researchers had been involved that “clinicians are fast to diagnose CTE.” Instead, she added, docs ought to give attention to a broad array of potentialities, significantly circumstances that may be handled and should enhance a participant’s high quality of life.

CTE began to get much more consideration in 2015 after the household of NFL legend Frank Gifford stated he had suffered from psychological points attributable to CTE. The mind situation has been linked to repeated head trauma, which could be frequent in skilled soccer gamers. CTE can be believed to have contributed to the suicide of retired NFL nice Junior Seau at age 43.

The present analysis included information from the continuing Football Players Health Study. Investigators surveyed 3,913 former NFL gamers who performed from 1960 or later. In 1960, the league moved from utilizing gentle leather-based helmets to arduous plastic.

The gamers who responded to the researchers had been between 24 and 89 years previous.

In gamers beneath 60, 2.3% reported a CTE prognosis, and three.7% of these over 60 stated they’d been identified with CTE, in keeping with the report printed on-line April 13 within the Annals of Neurology.

Symptoms of psychological impairment, similar to issue concentrating, forgetfulness and temper adjustments had been extra frequent among the many athletes with a CTE prognosis. And gamers identified with CTE had been extra seemingly than these with out the prognosis to have a number of of those circumstances: sleep apnea, irregular ldl cholesterol, hypertension, melancholy, weight problems, coronary heart ailments, low testosterone and prescription ache medication use.

The ramifications of a potential misdiagnosis are important, Grashow stated. “Believing that somebody has this prognosis — at the moment not possible to verify throughout life and for which there are not any remedies — may result in despair, melancholy and suicidal ideas in gamers,” she stated. “Such a prognosis can also encourage passive well being behaviors, whereby gamers cease proactively working to enhance their weight loss program, sleep habits and bodily exercise habits.”

Dr. Ira Goldstein is director of neurotrauma at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School.



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“The greatest fear in saying you will have CTE and never one thing else, is that you could be be lacking out on a possibility to deal with one thing else,” Goldstein stated.

“CTE is just not reversible, however there are different circumstances which might be, like dietary deficits,” he stated.

Goldstein additionally famous that there are some mind circumstances that may be handled with surgical procedure that mimic CTE signs, together with tumors and a buildup of fluid within the mind. Another situation that could possibly be mistaken for CTE is vascular dementia. And whereas that situation cannot be reversed, there are remedies, similar to controlling blood stress and taking aspirin to forestall blood clots, that may assist forestall it from getting worse, he defined.

Goldstein stated researchers are finding out new methods to diagnose CTE in folks whereas they’re nonetheless alive. PET scans, spinal fluid evaluation and a blood check that appears for sure substances within the blood are all being evaluated.

Grashow stated the researchers hope their research’s findings assist educate medical suppliers in regards to the limits and potential penalties in diagnosing CTE in somebody dwelling.

“We additionally need to empower gamers and their households to advocate for themselves in medical settings, and push again on clinicians who counsel CTE with out exploring different well being circumstances that have an effect on cognition,” she stated.

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SOURCES: Rachel Grashow, Ph.D., M.S., analysis scientist, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston; Ira Goldstein, M.D., affiliate professor and director, neurotrauma, advanced and minimally invasive backbone surgical procedure, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, New Brunswick; April 13, 2020, Annals of Neurology, on-line

Study Links Menopausal Night Sweats to Impaired Thinking

News Picture: Study Links Menopausal Night Sweats to Impaired Thinking

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Menopausal girls who get night time sweats sleep longer and the longer they sleep, the extra hassle they’ve considering straight, a shocking new research concludes.

Earlier research have drawn a hyperlink between daytime scorching flashes and worse reminiscence. In this research, researchers checked out sleep time and night time sweats amongst girls with a historical past of breast most cancers.

To their shock, the investigators discovered that extra frequent night time sweats have been related to longer sleep — and that the longer girls slept, the extra their consideration and considering expertise (“cognition”) decreased. However, the research solely discovered an affiliation and couldn’t show a cause-and-effect relationship.

Sleep time, nevertheless, didn’t have an effect on reminiscence. And daytime scorching flashes didn’t have an effect on whole sleep time, the researchers famous.

“This work presents novel insights into the affect of menopausal signs on cognitive efficiency amongst girls with a historical past of breast most cancers and raises the chance that scorching flash remedies may gain advantage cognition in these girls by way of results on sleep,” lead writer John Bark stated in a information launch from the North American Menopause Society.

Bark is a doctoral pupil in behavioral neuroscience on the University of Illinois at Chicago.

The findings are to be introduced this week at a gathering of the North American Menopause Society, in Chicago. Research introduced at conferences is often thought-about preliminary till revealed in a peer-reviewed journal.

— Steven Reinberg

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SOURCE: North American Menopause Society, information launch, Sept. 25, 2019

Drinking Takes Toll on Bones of People With HIV: Study

News Picture: Drinking Takes Toll on Bones of People With HIV: Study

FRIDAY, March 6, 2020 (HealthDay News) — Any quantity of alcohol consumption will increase the danger of osteoporosis in folks with HIV, a brand new report suggests.

Researchers analyzed information from a long-term research of 198 folks with HIV and a present or previous alcohol or drug use dysfunction.

In these folks, any alcohol consumption was related to decrease ranges of a protein concerned in bone formation, placing them at elevated danger of the bone-thinning illness, osteoporosis, the Boston University (BU) researchers mentioned.

“We didn’t discover an quantity of alcohol consumption that appeared ‘protected’ for bone metabolism,” mentioned lead creator Dr. Theresa Kim. She’s a college member of the Clinical Addiction Research Education program at Boston Medical Center.

“As you become older, your capacity to take care of ample bone formation declines,” mentioned Kim, who can be an assistant professor at BU School of Medicine. “These findings recommend that for folks with HIV, alcohol might make this harder.”

The research was revealed March 2 within the journal Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.

Low bone density is frequent amongst folks with HIV, even these on antiretroviral remedy who’ve suppressed ranges of the virus, the research authors defined in a college information launch.

Study senior creator Dr. Richard Saitz, a professor of neighborhood well being sciences at BU School of Public Health, mentioned, “Our discovering highlights an under-recognized circumstance during which folks with HIV an infection typically discover themselves: Their viral load could be nicely managed by efficacious, now easier-to-take medicines, whereas different well being situations and dangers that generally co-occur — like substance use and different medical situations — are much less well-addressed.”

Kim mentioned the findings are instructive to her as a major care doctor within the Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program.

“If I had been counseling a affected person who was involved about their bone well being, moreover checking vitamin D and recommending train, I’d warning them about alcohol use, provided that alcohol consumption is a modifiable danger issue, and osteoporosis can result in fracture and practical decline,” she mentioned.

— Robert Preidt

MedicalNews
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SOURCE: Boston University School of Medicine, information launch, March 3, 2020

Baby’s Sleep Issues Could Sometimes Signal Autism: Study

News Picture: Baby's Sleep Issues Could Sometimes Signal Autism: Study

MONDAY, May 11, 2020 (HealthDay News) — Babies who’ve disrupted sleep, as many with autism do, could expertise delayed mind improvement, a brand new research suggests.

Sleep issues in child’s first yr could have an effect on development of the hippocampus and can also precede an autism prognosis, researchers say.

In the research of 400 6- to 12-month-old infants, the investigators discovered that these recognized with autism have been extra more likely to have had bother falling asleep. Sleep time is prime time for mind improvement, the research authors famous.

“The hippocampus is important for studying and reminiscence, and modifications within the dimension of the hippocampus have been related to poor sleep in adults and older youngsters,” mentioned lead writer Kate MacDuffie, a postdoctoral researcher on the University of Washington Autism Center, in Seattle.

As many as 80% of youngsters with autism have sleep issues, in response to the middle’s director, Annette Estes.

“In our scientific expertise, mother and father have a whole lot of issues about their youngsters’s sleep, and in our work on early autism intervention, we noticed that sleep issues have been holding youngsters and households again,” Estes mentioned in a college information launch.

It’s too quickly, nevertheless, to inform if sleep patterns predict autism, she mentioned.

Sleep patterns within the first years of life change as infants go from sleeping across the clock to a extra adult-like sleep/wake sample. Without extra research, Estes mentioned, it is not doable to find out whether or not sleep issues point out an early signal of an elevated danger for autism.

There is likely to be a organic part to sleep issues for some youngsters with autism, nevertheless, she mentioned.

For the research, the researchers evaluated youngsters at 6, 12 and 24 months of age, and questioned mother and father concerning the youngsters’s sleep habits. Infants additionally had MRI scans.

The researchers deemed 127 infants at low danger of autism as a result of that they had no household historical past of the dysfunction. Of the roughly 300 youngsters who have been initially thought of high-risk, 71 have been recognized with autism at age 2.

In addition, MacDuffie’s crew in contrast repeat MRI mind scans with the youngsters’s sleep histories. Sleep issues have been extra frequent among the many infants recognized with autism, as was a bigger hippocampus. No different elements of the mind have been affected.

Other research have linked “overgrowth” in several mind constructions to social, language and behavioral features of autism.

While the brand new analysis confirmed a hyperlink between mind construction and sleep issues amongst youngsters who have been later recognized with autism, it couldn’t show that there was a causal relationship.

The research was revealed on-line May 7 within the American Journal of Psychiatry.

— Steven Reinberg

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SOURCE: University of Washington, information launch, May 7, 2020

Don’t Use Pricey New HIV PrEP Drug When Generics Available: Study

News Picture: Don't Use Pricey New HIV PrEP Drug When Generics Available: Study

MONDAY, March 9, 2020 (HealthDay News) — The creation of HIV-suppressing medication has ushered in a brand new period of “pre-exposure prophylaxis” (PrEP) that drastically cuts a sexually energetic individual’s odds of contracting the virus.

But wider entry to PrEP is being threatened by pharmaceutical firm efforts to curb using low cost, new generic types of these medicines, researchers argue in a brand new research.

The research authors stated that their evaluation discovered that an costly new branded formulation of PrEP — touted as being safer by the corporate that makes it — would in actuality be no higher than cheaper generics.

Also, any push to make use of brand-name PrEP might sluggish efforts to finish the HIV epidemic, the researchers contend.

If the brand new branded drug “succeeds in driving out its generic competitor, PrEP enlargement within the U.S. might grind to a halt and the brand new drug might find yourself inflicting extra avoidable HIV transmissions than it prevents,” stated research senior creator A. David Paltiel. He’s professor of public well being on the Yale School of Public Health, in New Haven, Conn.

HIV PrEP is a capsule taken as soon as a day that reduces the danger of HIV an infection by way of intercourse or injection drug use by as much as 99%.

However, since 2012, there has solely been one U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved PrEP. It’s a mixture of tenofovir/emtricitabine (F/TDF) that is been marketed by Gilead Sciences and bought below the model title Truvada.

Patent safety for Truvada is because of expire and the primary generic model is anticipated in September 2020, Paltiel’s staff stated.

Is newer drug safer?

Truvada does have “a robust report of security and efficacy,” stated research co-author Tim Horn, in a Yale information launch. He directs remedy entry and pricing for the National Alliance of State & Territorial AIDS Directors.

But brand-name medication are usually way more costly than generics. So, “the upcoming arrival of a far cheaper, equally secure and efficient, generic various is a golden alternative to develop entry to PrEP in among the most difficult-to-reach segments of the at-risk inhabitants,” Horn believes.

However, in October the FDA accepted a new type of PrEP, known as Descovy, additionally made by Gilead. It’s a barely completely different drug combo: emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (F/TAF).

Gilead has been actively recommending that medical doctors who deal with HIV swap sufferers to Descovy, claiming that it is significantly safer than Truvada for sufferers’ bones and kidneys.

But is that declare true?

To discover out, the analysis staff examined whether or not there was proof to justify the frenzy to get sufferers to modify to Descovy — as an alternative of merely utilizing generic types of the outdated Truvada formulation.

The reply: “Even after we forged branded F/TAF in essentially the most favorable gentle doable, we discovered no believable state of affairs below which F/TAF can be cost-effective in comparison with generic F/TDF, besides maybe for the vanishingly small variety of individuals with exceptionally excessive danger of bone or renal [kidney] illness,” research lead creator Dr. Rochelle Walensky stated within the information launch. She’s chief of infectious ailments on the Massachusetts General Hospital and a professor on the Harvard Medical School in Boston.

Paltiel agreed. “In the presence of a generic F/TDF choice, branded F/TAF’s value can’t be justified by its modest advantages,” he stated.

Talk together with your physician

One professional in HIV care stated the research did have some flaws, however agreed that sticking to the generic, as soon as it turns into obtainable, can be the higher choice for a lot of sufferers.

“Clinicians are subjected to typically intense promotional exercise generated each by educational and business pursuits when new medicines and information are generated,” defined Dr. Joseph McGowan, medical director of the Northwell Health HIV Service Line Program, in Manhasset, N.Y.

Often, it is robust for busy medical doctors to separate pharmaceutical firm hype from any actual and documented profit, he stated, so out of expediency they might prescribe the brand new and costly drug.

McGowan stated the brand new evaluation has some shortcomings — for instance, the authors put the projected value of a generic PrEP at 50% lower than brand-name choices, though at this time limit the precise value for sufferers in September is unsure.

But McGowan, who had no position within the new research, stated that the researchers make some necessary factors.

For instance, “in accordance with AIDSVu, virtually two-thirds of PrEP customers fall between the ages of 25 and 44 years, which might be a gaggle anticipated to be at low danger for renal and bone illness,” McGowan stated.

He believes that Descovy would possibly nonetheless be the higher, more cost effective choice for some sufferers over the age of 55, as a result of their dangers for bone and kidney issues is larger.



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On the opposite hand, most Truvada customers (and those that would possibly swap to the generic) solely use the medication throughout “durations of danger” (for instance, sexual exercise) and never on a power foundation, McGowan famous. That might scale back sufferers’ potential for bone or kidney unintended effects, he stated.

His recommendation: Patients ought to speak with their physicians in regards to the professionals and cons of switching from Truvada to both a generic or Descovy.

“Sometimes the shiny new object might not at all times be the higher choice and ought to be used judiciously when there’s a clear profit,” McGowan stated.

HealthDay’s efforts to achieve out to Gilead for remark had been unsuccessful.

The research was printed March 9 within the journal Annals of Internal Medicine.

— E.J. Mundell

MedicalNews
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SOURCES: Joseph McGowan, M.D., medical director, Northwell Health HIV Service Line Program, Manhasset, N.Y.; Yale School of Public Health, information launch, March 9, 2020

Autism May Spur Eating Disorders in Adolescence, Study Finds

News Picture: Autism May Spur Eating Disorders in Adolescence, Study Finds

MONDAY, May 18, 2020 (HealthDay News) — Autism could also be a danger issue for consuming problems, a brand new research suggests.

Previous analysis has proven that 20% to 30% of adults with consuming problems have autism, and the identical is true for between 3% and 10% of kids and youths. But it wasn’t clear if autism developed earlier than consuming problems or vice versa.

To discover out, researchers assessed autism traits in almost 5,400 kids within the United Kingdom at ages 7, 11, 14 and 16, and indicators of consuming problems (akin to fasting, purging, extended weight-reduction plan or binge-eating) at age 14.

The analysis staff discovered that autism traits appeared first, suggesting that it could be a danger issue for consuming problems, in response to the research revealed on-line lately within the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.

Children with extra autism traits at age 7 had been 24% extra more likely to have weekly indicators of disordered consuming at age 14. However, consuming problems at age 14 didn’t seem to extend autism traits by age 16, the investigators discovered.

“The subsequent step is to study extra about why these with autistic traits have the next danger of creating an consuming dysfunction so we will then design interventions to forestall consuming problems,” mentioned research co-author William Mandy. He’s a senior lecturer in well being training and psychology at University College London (UCL).

“Around a fifth of girls presenting with anorexia nervosa have excessive ranges of autistic traits — and there may be some proof that these girls profit the least from present consuming dysfunction remedy fashions. People with autism and consuming problems might have a distinct strategy in the direction of remedy,” Mandy mentioned in a college information launch.

Senior research writer Glyn Lewis, a professor of epidemiological psychology at UCL, mentioned mother and father and caregivers of kids with autism ought to concentrate on the dangers. “Being alert to consuming disordered behaviors and looking for assist early might be useful,” Lewis famous.

— Robert Preidt

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SOURCE: University College London, information launch, May 12, 2020

After Tooth Pull, Opioids Don’t Relieve Pain Better Than Other Meds: Study

News Picture: After Tooth Pull, Opioids Don't Relieve Pain Better Than Other Meds: Study

FRIDAY, March 13, 2020 (HealthDay News) — Opioids are not any higher than different meds at quelling the ache of a pulled tooth, a brand new examine finds, suggesting it could be potential to considerably scale back their use in dentistry.

University of Michigan researchers requested greater than 325 individuals who had enamel pulled to charge their ache and satisfaction inside six months of their extraction.

About half of those that had surgical extraction and 39% of those that had routine extraction had been prescribed opioids, in line with the examine.

“Patient satisfaction with ache administration was no totally different between the opioid group and non-opioid group, and it did not make a distinction whether or not it was surgical or routine extraction,” examine co-author Dr. Romesh Nalliah mentioned in a college information launch. He is affiliate dean for affected person companies at Michigan’s School of Dentistry.

In truth, his group was stunned to seek out that sufferers who received opioids reported worse ache than these given non-opioid painkillers for each sorts of extractions.

The examine additionally discovered that about half of the opioids prescribed went unused.

If leftovers aren’t disposed of correctly, sufferers or individuals round them might be liable to future opioid misuse, the researchers famous.

“The real-world information from this examine reinforces the beforehand printed randomized-controlled trials displaying opioids are not any higher than acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication for ache after dental extraction,” mentioned examine co-author Dr. Chad Brummett. He’s director of the Division of Pain Research at Michigan Medicine.

The authors mentioned their findings counsel that main modifications are wanted in dental prescribing practices in gentle of the present opioid disaster within the United States.

The American Dental Association suggests limiting opioid prescriptions to seven days’ provide, however Nalliah thinks that is an excessive amount of.

“I feel we are able to nearly eradicate opioid prescribing from dental apply,” he mentioned. “Of course, there are going to be some exceptions, like sufferers who cannot tolerate nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories. I might estimate we are able to scale back opioid prescribing to about 10% of what we at present prescribe as a career.”

The examine was printed March 13 within the journal JAMA Network Open.

— Robert Preidt

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SOURCE: University of Michigan, information launch, March 13, 2020

Your Teeth Are a Permanent Archive of Your Life: Study

News Picture: Your Teeth Are a Permanent Archive of Your Life: Study

WEDNESDAY, March 25, 2020 (HealthDay News) — Your enamel present an in depth account of your life, a lot as a tree’s rings report its historical past, a groundbreaking examine exhibits.

“A tooth isn’t a static and useless portion of the skeleton. It constantly adjusts and responds to physiological processes,” stated lead examine creator Paola Cerrito, a doctoral candidate finding out anthropology and dentistry at New York University (NYU) in New York City.

“Just like tree rings, we will have a look at ‘tooth rings’: constantly rising layers of tissue on the dental root floor,” she stated in a college information launch. “These rings are a trustworthy archive of a person’s physiological experiences and stressors from pregnancies and sicknesses to incarcerations and menopause that every one go away a particular everlasting mark.”

For the examine, the NYU researchers in contrast practically 50 enamel from skeletons of people that ranged in age from 25 to 69 to details about their medical historical past and life-style, equivalent to age, sicknesses, important occasions and the place they lived.

The researchers targeted on cementum, the tissue overlaying the tooth’s root. It begins to type yearly layers from the time the tooth seems within the mouth.

Using imaging methods to light up cementum bands, the investigators uncovered hyperlinks between tooth formation and numerous occasions within the lives of these included within the examine.

“The cementum’s microstructure, seen solely by means of microscopic examination, can reveal the underlying group of the fibers and particles that make up the fabric of this a part of the tooth,” Cerrito stated.

According to check co-author Timothy Bromage, a professor at NYU’s College of Dentistry, “The discovery that intimate particulars of an individual’s life are recorded on this little-studied tissue guarantees to deliver cementum straight into the middle of many present debates in regards to the evolution of human life historical past.”

The findings have been revealed March 25 within the journal Scientific Reports.

— Robert Preidt

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SOURCE: New York University, information launch, March 25, 2020

Menopause May Someday Disappear as Women Postpone Pregnancy: Study

News Picture: Menopause May Someday Disappear as Women Postpone Pregnancy: Study

WEDNESDAY, April 22, 2020 (HealthDay News) — As extra ladies postpone childbirth, evolution could begin to delay menopause or get rid of it altogether, Canadian researchers predict.

“Menopause will not be a illness. It’s a medical situation that arises merely due to human habits,” and might finish with a change in habits, stated evolutionary biologist Rama Singh, co-author of a paper printed April 19 within the journal BMC Women’s Health.

Singh is a professor at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario.

Previously, he is stated ladies’s fertility ends in midlife as a result of males have lengthy most well-liked youthful mates. Over 1000’s of years, older ladies who have been now not having youngsters collected infertility-related genetic mutations that led to menopause, he has contended.

In the brand new paper, Singh’s crew famous that altering social values and enhancements in science, medical testing and well being care have led ladies worldwide to delay childbirth.

For instance, the typical age a girl in Canada offers start rose from 23 to 30 within the final 50 years.

Evolution is bound to answer ladies having youngsters later in life, in response to Singh and his colleagues.

“This large change needs to be mirrored within the reproductive age of ladies. We are doing in 50 years what would have taken nature 1000’s of years,” Singh stated in a college information launch. “It goes to occur. It is going on due to social change. Women have management now.”

For the examine, the researchers analyzed knowledge gathered from 747 U.S. ladies who have been a part of a 12-year well being examine. There have been vital variations within the begin of menopause amongst them.

“The reality that there’s variation between people, and inside and between populations and ethnic teams, tells us that menopause is a altering, evolving trait that’s nonetheless very dynamic and that it will possibly change,” Singh stated.

Evolution will choose genetic variations that favor longer fertility in ladies, delaying the onset of menopause from the present vary of 45 to 60 years of age to later in life, in response to the researchers. That’s more likely to happen throughout the span of a era, the examine authors stated.

Eventually, menopause could now not happen, the examine authors prompt.

— Robert Preidt

MedicalNews
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SOURCE: McMaster University, information launch, April 17, 2020